The ubiquitous yellow four-inch cedar Dixon Ticonderoga pencil, most associated with test taking by students, was made in Jersey City for over a century. The American inventor and manufacturer responsible for the familiar writing implement was Joseph Dixon (1799-1869), who was born at Marblehead, MA. After the Dixon Crucible Company closed its doors in the 1980s, the manufacturing plant was renovated and is now the Dixon Mills, a mixed-use apartment complex.
As a young man Joseph Dixon, known as an inventor and manufacturer, took an interest in experimentation with crucibles and graphite. He mixed Ceylon graphite, found on his father's sailing vessels, with clay and water, rolled the substance into strips, baked them in his mother's oven, and pressed the strips into pieces of grooved cedar wood. The invention, however, did not replace the popular quill pen as a less expensive writing instrument until the practicality of the pencil became apparent to the soldiers during the Civil War. With its fast gaining popularity during the war, Dixon designed a machine that planed and shaped enough wood for the manufacture of 132 pencils a minute for which he received a patent in 1866.
Dixon had moved to Jersey City in 1847 for its location and marketing potential for his products and then proceeded to construct a large manufacturing plant of several buildings. Three years later he received patents for the use of graphite crucibles in pottery and steel. He refined his steel-making process with a furnace of his own design. Other inventions with which he is associated are the first iron stove polish made of graphite, use of fast-color dyes for cotton fabrics, the prototype of the contemporary viewfinder, a process of photolithography, and a crucible that was able to withstand heat of 2,780 degrees. His steel production was recognized as superior to its English counterpart at the London World Fair in 1851, for which he received a gold medal. In 1853, Dixon's home was said to be at 20 Wayne Street.
Dixon died in 1869 at the age of seventy, but his company continued to improve upon his goal of making the affordable and serviceable lead pencil. His son-in-law, Orestes Cleveland, a manufacturer from New York, had entered the company in 1858 and became president. His hands-on supervision established the company as one of the most highly regarded brands for the mass production most consistent and reliable products of its kind. By 1872 the Dixon Crucible Company was making 86,000 pencils a day and selling them for five cents each. The company's next major decision in 1873 was to purchase the assets of land, mills and water power of the American Graphite Company at Ticonderoga, NY, to enhance its graphite production. It was not until 1913, however, that the location of American Graphite was added to the well-known brand name "Dixon Ticonderoga" pencils. The company name continued as the Joseph Dixon Crucible Company.
While the company made strides in its pencil, stove polish and crucible sectors, its financial status was compromised and went into bankruptcy due to the malfeasance of its president. Orestes Cleveland used corporate funds to campaign unsuccessfully for governor of New Jersey in 1880. He had entered Jersey City politics in the 1860s, serving on the Board of Alderman (1861 and 1862 as president) and in the US House of Representatives (1869-1871). He also was elected mayor in 1864 and again in 1886 with the help of Bob Davis, the Hudson County Democratic "Boss."
Joseph Dixon's company was saved by the head of the First National Bank in Jersey City and political power broker, Edward F.C. Young. He was named receiver of the company in 1883, restored it to profitability and became its president. The Dixon Crucible Company eventually came under the control of Young's son-in-law George T. Smith. The company, through Young's financial skills, survived its set back and, a century later, had twelve manufacturing plants in the United States, Canada and Mexico.
In 1986, the Dixon Venture Corporation, at 535 Secaucus Road, Secaucus, New Jersey, converted the former Dixon plant into a mixed use complex of 452 apartments, retail units, and a health club, known as Dixon Mills. Architect James N. Lindemon of Jersey City was responsible for the renovation of the plant into turn-of-the-twentieth century townhouses. Features of the buildings have been preserved, such as the signage, twin 150 foot high smokestacks, upper story walkways, wrought iron railings, and original stoops. Within the complex, Wayne Street has been closed off to provide a two-block landscaped cobblestone pedestrian mall.
"Joseph Dixon." Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1920.
Erskine, Helen Worden. "Joe Dixon and His Writing Stick." The Reader's Digest Reprint. Pleasantville, NY: November 1958.
Kaulessar, Ricardo. "From Pencils to Condos." The Jersey City Reporter 10 December 2006.
Prior, James. T., ed. "The Dixon Company Marks 150 Years," New Jersey Business February 1977:43-44.