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Jersey City Past and Present: Hudson County Courthouse (William J. Brennan)

Brennan Courthouse - Images

Hudson County Courthouse (1910)

William J. Brennan Hudson County Courthouse
Newark Avenue Facade

Photo: P. Shalhoub, 2002

Hudson County Courthouse (1910)

Mid-twentieth century postcard of the
1910 Hudson County Courthouse building depicting the Baldwin Avenue (left) and Newark Avenue (right) facades.

Courtesy, Jersey City Free Public Library

Hudson County Courthouse (1910)

Postcard showing Baldwin Avenue facade.

Courtesy, Jersey City Free Public Library

Hudson County Courthouse (1910)

Facade detail of the William J. Brennan Courthouse.
Photo: C. Karnoutsos, 2008

Hudson County Courthouse (1910)

Stained glass window and dome of the 1910 courthouse.
Photo: C. Karnoutsos, 2008

Hudson County Courthouse (1910)

Stained glass window and dome of the 1910 courthouse.
Photo: C. Karnoutsos, 2008

Hudson County Courthouses

Postcard circa 1910 showing the Greek Revival style 1845 Hudson County Courthouse in the foreground. Rising behind the old building the corners of the large white 1910 Beaux Arts style courthouse can be seen in the background.

Courtesy, Jersey City Free Public Library

Hudson County Courthouse (1910)

Detail from the 1919 Atlas of Jersey City and Bayonne. The 1845 court house building was taken down in 1912. It stood on the open space between the 1910 courthouse and the old jail.

Credits: New York Society of Model Engineer's Library, Rich Taylor Collection and
Historical Maps of New Jersey site of Rutgers University

Hudson County Administration Building

Hudson County Administration Building (595 Newark Avenue) By 1964, the structure was expanded upwards with additional stories so as to accommodate all aspects of the county court system.
Photo: P. Shalhoub, 2002

Hudson County Administration Building

Hudson County Hall of Records postcard circa 1953. Nearby Willow Court was closed and the adjacent properties acquired for the construction of the new Hudson County Hall of Records and Administration Building in the 1950's.
Courtesy, RF Smith

Justice William J Brennan

Portrait of Justice William J. Brennan in the 1910 courthouse named in his honor.
Photo: C. Karnoutsos, 2008

Justice William J Brennan

Hudson County (Brennan) Courthouse

Courtesy, RF Smith

Hall of Records (Administration Building), Hudson County NJ

Courtesy, RF Smith

Old Hudson County Courthouse and Jail

Courtesy, RF Smith

Location: William J. Brennan Hudson County Courthouse

William J. Brennan Hudson County Courthouse

Brennan (William J.) Hudson County Court House
575-583 Newark Avenue at Newark, Baldwin and Pavonia Avenues

National Register of Historic Places, 1970

Hudson County's landmark court house was built during the time of the American Renaissance (1876-1917) and opened on September 10, 1910.  It was designed by architect Hugh Roberts, a resident of Jersey City.  He was the brother-in-law of Hudson County attorney William D. Edwards and of US Senator and New Jersey Governor Edward I. Edwards. The companies of Well Bros. and John Gill & Sons completed completion of the court house for $3.3 million.

Robert's goal for the structure was to fulfill his commission from the county freeholders with a grand beaux-arts building, similar to the nearby Essex County Court House built by Cass Gilbert, that combined classical style and aspects of American history reflecting events associated with the founding of Jersey City.  Reminiscent of Italian Renaissance palaces, the six-story exterior (183' x 134') of the court house features massive granite walls, marble flooring, bronze window frames and doors, Corinthian columns, and low flat copper dome with the torch of victory.

The four-story interior design and ornamentation received as much attention as the exterior.  Eight columns of Italian green marble dramatically rise from the second to the fourth floor in the center of the building forming an interior court covered by a dome. Scenes of the zodiac surround the rotunda with a dome of stained class. Architectural historian Suzanne Hand remarks that the structure's great rotunda "with its rich materials, columns, balustrades, arches and dome shows the sumptuousness of Neoclassical Revival design" (79).

Roberts, who admired the paintings at the Essex County Court House, selected Francis David Millet to become the director of decoration, the same role he had for the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. He then commissioned four of the artists who worked at the Newark court house:  Edwin H. Blashfield, Charles Yardley Turner, Kenyon Cox and Howard Pyle. Their murals grace the interior of the building. 

They depict the history of Hudson County, such as The Coming of the English by Pyle seen in the Hudson County Freeholders' Assembly Chamber. The four major courtrooms on the top floor are each designed in a classic style conveying the majesty of the law.

A new modern Hudson County Hall of Records and Administration Building in the International Style of architecture was opened nearby in 1953 and was substantially enlarged ten years later.  In 1966, the "old court house" was closed and plans were underway for its demolition. However, in the mid-1970s, a successful campaign by citizens and artists to save the courthouse resulted in the restoration of the building. It was reopened in 1985 for use in civil cases. The restoration program received a preservation award from the Victorian Society of America in 1988.  The following year the Offices of the Hudson County Executive returned to the first floor of the historic building.

In 1989, the Hudson County Board of Chosen Freeholders renamed the building for William J. Brennan, Jr. He was born in Newark in 1906 and graduated Harvard Law School in 1931. Justice Brennan was nominated by Governor Alfred E. Driscoll to a judgeship on the New Jersey Superior Court and served as Hudson's County's assignment judge from 1949 to 1951. He succeeded to the Appellate Division of the Superior Court in 1952 and was nominated by President Dwight D. Eisenhower as an Associate Justice to the US Supreme Court in 1956, where he served until 1990. Justice Brennan's tenure on the court is associated with his influence in landmark cases such as Baker v. Carr and The New York Times v. Sullivan.In 2001, New York University School of Law opened the Brennan Center for Justice for the former associate justice. In 2007, the rotunda was dedicated to Theodore Conrad, one of the leaders in the preservation campaign to save the court house. 

The Hudson County Office of Cultural Affairs and Tourism created a special video entitled “A Link to the Past: A Vision of the Future: The Hudson County Justice William J. Brennan Court House” in honor of the centennial of the construction of the 1910 court house.

William J. Brennan Hudson County Courthouse - References

Brennan Center for Justice. http://www.brennancenter.org
Eisler, Kim Isaac. A Justice for All: William J. Brennan Jr., and the Decisions That Transformed America. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1993.
Gomez, John. "Restoration Across the Decades: The Majestic Hudson County Justice William J. Brennan Jr. Courthouse." Jersey City Restored 2013 Calendar. Jersey City Landmarks Conservancy. Jersey City, NJ: Logomania, 2013.
Hand, Suzanne C. The New Jersey Architect. Trenton, NJ: New Jersey Historical Commission, 1995.
Mott, Jacolyn A., ed. Heroes in the Fight for Beauty: The Muralists of the Hudson County Court House. Jersey City, NJ: Scott Printing Corporation. Published for exhibition at Jersey City Museum, 1985-1986.